Thursday, May 21, 2020
A social worker is someone who engages with people to address their life challenges and improve their wellbeing. They are reliable for defending the values and principles of the social work definition. The principles and values of social work are Ã¢â¬Å"respect for the inherent worth and dignity of human beings, doing no harm, respect for diversity and upholding human rights and social justiceÃ¢â¬ (Global Definition of Social Work). Social work goes by the first, second, and third generation rights. These rights include free speech, freedom of harm, rights to an education, rights to healthcare, and rights to housing and protection (Global Definition of Social Work). Social workers are very passionate in what they do, and they make sure they carryÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some people think that being a social worker is easy, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not true, they are constantly working even when not on the clock. These social workers are passionate about what they do and will do wha tever they can to make sure the children are safe. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s very depressing working with some of the cases the social workers get, from the way families are living and the actions of the parents to the way the children are treated. Most cases social workers get are anonymous complaints, some of them will only give the childÃ¢â¬â¢s name and the neighborhood or general area. The social workers will then go to the school to try and get the information needed to locate the child. Although, most times when they ask for the information the school will not provide that for them without a signed form from the parents (Social Workers Battle Heavy Caseloads, Workplace Dangers). The social worker will evaluate the home to see if it is safe for the children to live there or if they need to be removed from that home. They will arrange foster homes or adoptive homes for the children. Social workers will also do home visits and evaluations of the foster or adoptive homes. At the home visits t he social worker will talk to the foster/adoptive parents to make sure all is going well. If the children are old enough to talk and understand what is going on, the social worker will talk to them as well to see how they like it and make sure theyShow MoreRelated Social Work Essay1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThis essay will discuss social divisions; social exclusion and social inclusion, of which there are many definitions and interpretations. Social divisions and Social exclusion has been around for many years. Social exclusion was first noticed in France in 1970s in relation to people who fell outside the range of the social insurance system, such as disabled people, lone parents and the young unemployed (Townsend and Kennedy, 2004). Before 1997 Social exclusion was referred to as Ã¢â¬ËpovertyÃ¢â¬â¢, whichRead MoreEssay On Social Work1897 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSocial work in modern day society is faced with an array of challenges making the profession a difficult and testing o ne at times. This essay will hold a focus upon social work practice in the Adult Services field. This field includes, but is not limited to, working with individuals with disabilities (physical or mental) those with alcohol or substance addictions, people experiencing psychological distress, those facing financial distress, victims of abuse, those convicted of crimes and people withRead MoreEssay On Social Work733 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSocial work is all about understanding and making a difference in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. I am very passionate about actively helping people overcome their problems and have the best quality of life they possible can. I understand that social work is a challenging occupation; however, I believe I have the skills and determination to pursue a career in social work. My main curricular interests are in social subjects such as geography and history. I enjoy finding out about the world and the people. ThisRead MoreEssay On Social Work1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Social work is the professional activity of helping individuals, groups, or communities enhance or restore their capacity for social functioning and creating societal conditions favorable to this goal (Kirst-Ashman 2017)Ã¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Social welfare is a national system of programs, benefits, and services that help people meet the social, economic, educational, and health needs fundamental to the maintenance of society (Kirst-Ashman 2017)Ã¢â¬ . Many people agree that social welfare and social work is very importantRead MoreEssay On Social Work1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe key life experiences that have led me to choose social work as my major was because I enjoy making a difference in the lives of others. I had many years of experience working in Behavioral Health and had the privilege working with children, adolescents, as well as adults with physical and mental disabilities. I believe I have sharp knowledge of behavioral and development issues. I am a mental health specialist and would like to be a social worker. I also want to be more involved with patientRead MoreSocial Work Essay1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbecome a Social Worker. My whole life I have been described as a social butterfly. I take every opportunity I can get to be social, which is why no one in my family had any worries about my ability to make friends when I moved away from home to California State University Monterey Bay. I take advantage of every workshop, every speaker, and every event that my school offers in order to gain more insight on the Social Work profession. One of the reasons why I chose my concentration to be Social Work, isRead MoreEssay On Social Work1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSocial work is my seco nd decision. I had been going to Henry Ford Community College for four years and was not sure what University I wanted to attend. I always knew the profession, I chose would primarily be focused on helping others. I thought about going to culinary arts school. However, I kept hearing the Lord lead me to social work, I was sure that helping young people has always been my calling. Social specialists don t just enable individuals to utilize their assets and insight to individualsRead MoreSocial Work Essay1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe social work profession as I understand essentially concerns the desire to help those in need of resources, services, and counsel. I consider the social work profession to be a passion-driven and providing career. I understand social work to be a profession providing helpful resources to those who seek assistance from others in various aspects, along with those who do not but can benefit. Being a social work professional means to me providing services onl y obtainable by professionals to thoseRead MoreEssay On Social Work1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescontinue to educate myself so I can better serve those around me. I offer assurance to let others know they are not alone and that I will help them. I feel all these person values are very consistent with social work. The core values of social work are service which I do daily in my volunteerism. Social Justice which I also fight for daily as an advocate for special education students in my towns schools, when confronted with ignorance. I feel I combine dignity and worth of the person with the importanceRead More Social Work Essay1900 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSocial Work Social work is located within some of the most complex problems and perplexing areas of human experience, and for this reason, social work is, and has to be, a highly skilled activity.Ã¢â¬ (Trevithick, 2000,p.1) Explain the meaning of this statement, and consider whether it is an adequate definition of the nature of social work. The aim of this assignment is to
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
A common idea of James Baldwin is that he happens to write more significant essays rather than fictions or dramatic pieces. However, his most common theme of choice, ones discovery of self-identity- is elaborately broadcasted and exhibited greatly in his short story Ã¢â¬Å"SonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s BluesÃ¢â¬ . First circulated in the late fifties and then again in the mid-sixties, Sonnys Blues explains BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s reasons for his famous arguments in the arena of Black freedom, while also providing a visual bonding of his work across multiple genres, with the ways and understandings of the urban Black community. The essential and gradual progression of Ã¢â¬Å"SonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s BluesÃ¢â¬ symbolizes the measured adaptation of the narrators perception of the importance of his younger brothers approach at life. The progression directs BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s audience to a thoughtful involvement with the individual by supplying an understanding of the human intentions of the young people whose situations, under normal circumstances, only receive recognition by others when being stated to others merely for their involvement in contributing to the severe statistics of dropout rates, usage of drugs, and unemployment status. The overall purpose of the story and its correlation with the theme of BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s work as a whole, is hidden behind his deliberate metaphorical use of the Blues. The distinctive feature of the Blues is its arrangement of individual and public significance in a harmonious affair with the past. The Blues-singerShow MoreRelatedJames BaldwinS Sonnys Blues713 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Harrisons Blues There can be little doubt that the characters who are the most similar in James Baldwins short story Sonnys Blues, and in Kurt Vonnegut Jr.s short story Harrison Bergeron, are the title characters of each respective work. They both embody conceptions of youth within each story Sonny as the younger brother of the nameless narrator in Baldwins tale, and Bergeron as the son of the George and Hazel Bergeron. In their own way, each is antisocial and engage in practices thatRead MoreJames Baldwins Sonnys Blues859 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿An Analysis of James Baldwin s Sonny s Blues In James Baldwin s short story Sonny s Blues a young man questions his brotherly obligations after finding that his younger brother has been arrested for using drugs. 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Most of the story deals with the narrator acknowledging the roles that each of h is family members had in shaping hisRead More The Inevitability of Suffering in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues876 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Inevitability of Suffering in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues Everyone likes to feel safe. We try to protect ourselves and those we love, to make them feel safe as well. The idea conveyed about safety in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues is that there is no such thing. The narrator of this story had thought that his brother Sonny was safe. Or at least, that was what he had made himself believe. I told myself that Sonny was wild, but he wasnt crazy. And hed always been a good boy, heRead More James Baldwins Story Sonnys Blues Essay1261 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJames Baldwins Story Sonnys Blues James Baldwin?s story ?Sonny?s Blues? is a deep and reflexive composition. Baldwin uses the life of two brothers to establish parallelism of personal struggle with society, and at the same time implies a psychological process of one brother leaving his socially ingrained prejudices to understand and accept the others flaws. The story is narrated by Sonny?s older brother whom remained unnamed the entire story. Sonnys brother is a pragmatic person, a teacherRead MoreEssay about James BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s SonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s Blues1028 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In the world of Harlem, New York the cruelties of the world become incandescently prominent. James BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"SonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s BluesÃ¢â¬ addresses the foreboding power of pain in a world where someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s coping skills dictate the course of their life. The story depicts a personÃ¢â¬â¢s options to ignore pain, create a reason for pain, or accept pain and live within it. Baldwin explains the theme of pervasive pain and parentÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to shield children from it through the characters. Their reaction to pain constructsRead More Symbolism in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues Essay1242 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSymbolism in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues Missing Works Cited Several passages found throughout Sonnys Blues indicate that as a whole, the neighborhood of Harlem is in the turmoil of a battle between good and evil. The narrator describes Sonnys close encounters with the evil manifested in drugs and crime, as well as his assertive attempts at distancing himself from the darker side. The streets and communities of Harlem are described as being a harsh environment which claims the lives ofRead MoreEssay on Literary Analysis of James BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s SonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s Blues2323 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesauthors create stories with a singular point of view, while others introduce more complex plots and storylines. When it comes to author James BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s short story SonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s Blues, there is much depth given to the storyline and the characters. SonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s Blues has been analyzed by many different people throughout time because the story has many elements. From BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s skillful use of metaphors and similes to his incorporation of re ligious references, this story is insightfully and complexly written. ARead More The Presence of Darkness in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues Essays809 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Presence of Darkness in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues In the story Sonnys Blues the author, James Baldwin, uses the image of darkness quite frequently. He uses it first when the older brother (main character) talks about his younger brother Sonny. He says that when Sonny was younger his face was bright and open. He said that he didnt want to believe that he would ever see his brother going down, coming to nothing, all that light in his face gone out. Meaning he had gone from good (cleanRead More The Power of Music in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues Essay1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Power of Music in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues At first glance, Sonnys Blues seems ambiguous about the relationship between music and drugs. After all, the worlds of jazz and drug addiction are historically intertwined; it could be possible that Sonnys passion for jazz is merely an excuse for his lifestyle and addiction, as the narrator believes for a time. Or perhaps the world that Sonny has entered by becoming involved in jazz is the danger- if he had not encountered jazz
Abstract: Current treatments of ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (PD) remain symptomatic, for example Levadopa, and results in a number of negative side effects after a foreseen period of time. However, investigations into using human embryonic stem (ES) cells to generate dopaminergic neurons hold huge potential for future treatments. Results show several patients gain an increased percentage of dopaminergic neural mass in the substantia nigra following transplantations of neural cell grafts into the striatum. We will write a custom essay sample on Can embryonic stem cells be used in the treatment of ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease? or any similar topic only for you Order Now This suggests that grafts can work, although other studies show some patients fail to show improvements. There is also the risk of the formation of teratomas and teratocarcinomas in post-operative subjects, due to the self-renewal characteristics of the stem cells. Despite a number of studies proving that using human embryonic stem cells could be a reliable method of treatment, there are still a number of issues unresolved. Since the majority of experiments have taken place on primates, it is unreliable to assume that the same results would occur in human trials. There are also a number of ethical issues such as destroying the Ã¢â¬Ëpotential human lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ of an embryo which, in several cases, is limiting the research and progression of new methods of treatment. Introduction ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease is a progressive degenerative disease of the substantia nigra, resulting in the depletion of dopamine in the striatum and the formation of protein bundles known as lewy bodies (1); such depletion of dopamine results in motor symptoms of which patients with PD present with, including resting tremor (2, 3). At present, the most common form of treatment for PD is Levadopa; however, it is only given once symptomatic and is thought that its effectiveness decreases over time (1). Investigations into the treatment of PD involving the use of embryonic stem cells to generate dopaminergic neurons for transplantation into the brain is currently in progress and this review is going to look at the prospects and issues that the use of human embryonic stem cells may bring about. (4). What are human embryonic stem cells? Human ES cells are unspecialised and can differentiate into a range of cells via cell division, in this case the most important being dopaminergic neurons (5). Human ES cells are generated from the pre-implantation stage of an embryo, a blastocyst, and can multiply rapidly, generating large numbers of cells (5, 6). This suggests there could be enough to provide sufficient amounts of DA neurons for clinical procedures. ES cells are taken from the eggs that have been fertilised in vitro, provided by consented donors (7, 8). How are human embryonic stem cells being used to generate dopaminergic neurons? ES cells are being used to produce tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons by culturing, expansion and differentiation (fig 1). ES cell colonies are selected individually and grown in agar plates allowing for embryoid bodies to develop. Embryoid bodies are then further cultured in a medium containing Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2) for seven days. A number of cell masses in rosette formations (figure 2b), resembling neural tube structures, were observed within the embryoid bodies (6). Figure 1: Generating Dopaminergic neurons (12). Neural precursors showed expression of Ã¢â¬Ënestin and musashiÃ¢â¬â¢, markers for neural progenitor cells (4): they act as a form of labelling identifying specific cells (9): Without FGF-2, no rosettes of orderly formation grew (6). When spherical neural masses formed after 14 days (figure 2a), it was noted that they could develop and multiply for over 120 days, providing evidence that there would be vast numbers of cells available for treatment (4).14 days is a short period of time tells us how efficient this method of neuron generation is. Figure 2: A Ã¢â¬â time in culture. B- ES cell colonies (10). One study (10) found that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells generated by neural masses was very small (5.4% +/- 1.8%) and to increase these figures, looked at the effects of growth factors and how they altered differentiation in culture. When FGF2 and FGF20 were present, percentages of TH+ cells increased by 18.6%; however, neither growth factors alone had such an effect. Once cultured in a differentiation medium, neural masses showed physiological characteristics of neurons providing evidence that differentiation was in progress. (4). What evidence is there to suggest that human embryonic stem cells may be used as an alternative treatment for ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease? Several studies (4, 5, 11) quote that human ES cells are able to successfully produce dopaminergic neurons and decrease the symptoms of PD when grafted into the brain. One study (10) experimented on a primate model with an induced form of PD and investigated as to whether the isolated TH+ neurons were able to function as dopaminergic neurons. The neurospheres grown from ES cells were grafted into the putamen of monkeys, only of which started to show signs of PD and whose conditions had deteriorated beyond a period of 12 weeks. After transplantation, the behaviour of the primates was observed and analysed using MRI scanning. 10 weeks following, neurological scores of the primates increased significantly in comparison to the control models. Having a control enables a clearer analysis to take place, and distinguish definite improvements in the primatesÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviours. A similar investigation (11) performed bilateral implants on 61 patients into the putamen. When looking at fluorodopa PET scans 12 months post-surgery, 85% of patients presented with neural mass growth and showed physiological improvements. However, one study (9) suggests that the outcome for each individual is not certain to gain the same result, because processes such as apoptosis are unable to be controlled, resulting in cell death within days after transplantation: this presents in scans as a lack of fluorodopa uptake, suggesting a range of cell survival. It is thought that if treated with neurotrophic factors before surgery, it could improve cell survival (11). Comparing the two studies (10, 11), both results showed promising improvements, emphasising that although one study (10) was on primates, and the second (11) involved humans, both experiments gained a similar positive result. However, this point could be argued as the primate was induced with PD rather than developing the progressive disease naturally. Analysis of more than one trial (11, 12) has indicated that the response to transplantation could show a positive correlation alongside the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to successfully react to L-dopa prior to the operation, as well as the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ stage of disease. One study (12) presented that if a patient scored lower that 50 on the unified ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s scale before surgery, then they were more likely to gain a positive result from the transplant. Some may say that for the treatment to be appreciated, it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter what stage the patient is at when receiving the transplant, and that it should work at all stages of the disease, although as proven with diseases such as cancer, this is not always possible. As well as increased F-dopa uptake, a studies on animals (13, 14) observed rotational behaviour in response to amphetamine before and after surgery. Results showed a decrease in the scores of the animals given the graft, whilst sham controls showed no improvement (figure 3). One study (13) was repeated on 4 occasions across a 9 week period and continued to show gradual reduction. This provides evidence that the graft was beginning to improve dopaminergic neuron function, as motor functions were showing significant improvements (14). Figure 3: Rotational behaviour scores (13) Another study (12) says that neurons generated from the cells of early aborted embryos are able to survive when transplanted into the striatum and recover the loss of function by 10-40%, by restoring dopamine production in the grafted area (15). However, such results may be unreliable in respect to human transplants as these studies were performed on rats and monkeys, of which the disease was induced by creating selective lesions. Such lesions are, therefore, in a different condition compared to natural lesions found in the brain of a patient with progressive PD (9). Transplants are thought to have decreased the occurrence of dyskinesias, a side-effect of levodopa; however, this has mostly only been proven in rats and monkeys. In addition, a number of patients have been able to stop using levodopa completely, although this is not a regular occurrence. On the contrary, a number of subjects have been noted having developed off dyskinesias: 7-15% of grafted patients (5). It is thought that this is down to the fact that the neurons are unable to function properly; this could be due to the overproduction of dopamine in the striatum (12). If there are consequences after transplantation, of the same severity as previous to the transplant, is it worth performing the operation? How are the generated neurons transplanted into the patientWhat are the issues with this? Grafts are injected into the brain whilst under anesthesia (16) and, as with all surgery, poses risks such as haemorrhage and infection (15). To minimise this, the number of needle passes is kept to a minimum. This was demonstrated in more than one case (9, 11, 15) where the needles were passed through the front of the head, through to the putamen bilaterally using a total of 4 needles (figure 4). In one study (16), 8 needle passes were used, however, this had no detriment to the outcome of the transplants, both achieving regeneration. ES cells themselves also pose risks. With characteristics such as pluripotency and self-renewal, stem cells have the potential to form teritomas and teratocarcinomas which, at present, is one of the greatest risks; without knowing that they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t form, transplatation of human ES cells will cease to be promising (17). Figure 4: MRI and PET scans showing F-DOPA uptake and needle passes (8). In order for this method to be successful, such characteristics of the cells need to be able to be controlled, and by doing so, will reduce the likelihood of teramtomas forming. Nonetheless, human ES cells maintain a normal karyotype and, therefore, these growths are not thought to be of the malignant variety (5). Despite this, there is evidence to suggest that teratomas formed from the transplantation of early or unspecified neurons into the brain, can lead to incomplete motor benefit in models of PD (18). In the majority of studies, patients were given immunosuppressive therapy before surgery to prevent rejection. The drug Cyclosporin was given, however, the course of the treatment varied, fluctuating between 2 days to 2 weeks (8, 11, 19). In such cases, when the immunosuppressive medication was withdrawn post-operatively, there was no evidence of reduction in f-dopa uptake, suggesting that the graft was functioning properly (19). One study (9) claims that immunosuppressive treatment is not needed when the graft is kept within the same species. What ethical issues are there with using human embryonic stem cells? One question that will continue to be brought up in regards to embryos is Ã¢â¬Ëat what stage is the embryo a human life?Ã¢â¬â¢ One book (20)suggests that for research on an embryo to commence, informed consent must be given as many people believe that the blastocyst has the potential to be a human being. However, because an embryo is incompetent of doing so, then the research cannot take place and, if it did, then it is thought that it would be restricting the embryos right or potential to life. Despite this, the use of stem cells derived from blastocysts continues to take place (20).Opinions vary and many of those who object to the use of embryos are subject to religious views: it is not necessarily a personal opinion but a matter of principle as to who has the right to determine life or death. One way of presenting the idea of using ES cells to those ethically opposed is by carrying out a benefit to risk ratio, weighing up the pros and cons of the situation. One argument (21) emphasises potential relief of symptoms, and the withdrawal of pharmacological treatment. It could not only benefit the subject, but also influence those affected indirectly by PD. Opposing to this are the risks of tumour formations and infection both during and after surgery, along with rejection by the immune system. With ethical issues in mind, Parthenogenesis has provided an alternative way of deriving pluripotent stem cells without damaging embryos, preventing the destruction of potential life. Asexual reproduction of sex cells could be the route to generating vast amounts of pluripotent stem cells appropriate for transplantation, without the ethical issues that we face today (18). Discussion: Looking at the evidence provided, it is viable to conclude that the use of human ES cells to produce dopaminergic neurons for transplantation into the brain has potential for future treatments. However, at present, studies are unable to provide valid evidence that this alternative treatment is guaranteed to work on a world-wide basis, as there is yet to be a steady correlation of improved brain function post-operative. Alongside this, there will continue to be a number of ethical arguments against the idea with respect to using human embryos as the source of stem cells, although, as discussed previously, other methods of generating stem cells such as parthenogenesis could be the answer to this. A greater knowledge of how the cells are differentiating and having the ability to gain control of this would provide a much better prospect for the future pioneers of embryonic dopamine cell transplantation. With greater research and more promising results, the use of human ES cells to genera te dopaminergic neurons could provide an effective method of treatment in the near future, which could lead to the successful restoration of normal brain function. 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In vitro differentiation of transplantable neural precursors from human embryonic stem cells. Nature, 19 (8) Mendez, I., Sanchez-Pernaute, R., Cooper, O., Vinuela, A., Ferrari, D., Bjorklund, L., Dagher, A., Isacson, O., 2005. Cell type analysis of functional fetal dopamine cell suspension transplants in the striatum and substantia nigra of patients with ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. Brain, 128, pp. 1498-1510 (9) Bjorklund, A,. Dunnett, S.B., Brundin, P., Stoessl, A.J., Freed, C.R., Breeze, R.E., Levivier, M., Peschanski, M., Studer, L., Barker, R., 2003. Neural transplantation for the treatment of ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. The Lancet Neurology, 2, pp.437-445 (10) Takagi, Y., Takahashi, J., Saiki, H., Morizane, A., Hayashi, T., Kishi, Y., Fukuda, H., Okamoto, Y., Koyanagi, M., Ideguchi, M., Hayshi, H., Imazoto, T., Kawasaka, H., Suemori, H., Omachi, S., Iida, H., Itoh, N., Nakatsuji, N., Sasai, Y., Hashimoto, N., 2005. Dopaminergic neurons generated from monkey embryonic stem cells function in a Parkinson primate model. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 115(1), pp.102-109 (11) Freed, C.R., Leehey, M.A., Zawada, M., Bjugstad, K., Thompson, L., Breeze, R.E., 2003. Do patients with ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease benefit from embryonic dopamine cell transplantationJ Neurol, 3, pp.44-46 (12) Isacson, O., 2003. The production and use of cells as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative disease. The Lancet Neurology, 2, pp.417-424 (13) Bjorklund, L.M., Sanchez-Pernaute, R,. Chung, S., Anderson, T., Yin Ching Chen, I., McNaught, K.S.P, Brownell, A.L., Jenkins, B.G., Wahlestedt, C., Kim, K.S., Isacson, O., 2002. Embryonic stem cells develop into functional dopaminergic neurons after transplantation in a Parkinson rat model. PNAS, 99 (4), pp.2344-2349 (14) Kim, J.H., Auerbach, J.M., Rodriguez-Gomez, J.A., Velasco, I., Gavin, D., Lumelsky, N., Lee, S.H., Nguyen, J., Sanchez-Pernaute, R., Bankiewicz, K., McKay, R., 2002. Dopamine neurons derived from embryonic stem cells function in an animal model of ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. Nature, 418, pp.50-56 (15) Freed, C.R., Greene, P.E., Breeze, R.E, Tsai, W.Y., DuMouchel, W., Kao, R., Dillon, S., Winfield, H., Culver, S., Trojanowski, J.Q., Eidelberg, D., Fahn, S., 2001. Transplantation of Embryonic dopamine neurons for severe ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 344 (10), pp.710-719 (16) Olanow, C.W., Goetz, C.G., Kordower, J.H., Stoessl, A.J., Sossi, V., Brin, M.F., Shannon, K.M., Nauert, M., Perl, D.P., Godbold, J., Freeman, T.B., 2003. Double-blind controlled trial of bilateral fetal nigral transplantation in ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. Ann Neurol, 54, pp.403-414 (17) Wu, D.C., Boyd, A.S., Wood, K.J., 2007. Embryonic stem cell transplantation: potential applicability in cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. Frontiers in Bioscience, 12, pp.4525-4535 (18) Sanchez-Pernaute, R., Lee, H., Patterson, M., Reske-Nielsen, C., Toshizaki, T., Sonntag, K.C., Studer, L., Isacson, O.,2008. Parthenogenetic dopamine neurons from primate embryonic stem cells restore function in experimental ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. Brain, 131, pp.2127-2139 (19) Piccini, P., Pavese, N., Hagell, P., Remier, J., Bjorklund, A., Oertel, W.H., Quinn, N.P., Brooks, D.J., Lindvall, O., 2005. Factors affecting the clinical outcome after neural transplantation in ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. Brain, 128, pp.2977-2986 (20) Cusine, D.J., 1991. Experimentation: some legal aspects. Experiments on Embryos, (editors Anthony, D. Harris, J) pp.120. Routledge: London (21) Master, Z., McLeod, M., Mendez, I,. 2007. Benefits, risks and ethical considerations in translation of stem cell research to clinical applications in ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. Journal of Medical Ethics, 33, pp.169-173 Web References: (7) National Institute of Health. Stem Cell Basics. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9th March 2011]. Figure References: Title page: Available at: [Accessed 21st March 2011] Figure 1 (12) Ã¢â¬â Isacson, O., 2003. The production and use of cells as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative disease. The Lancet Neurology, 2, pp.417-424 Figure 2 (10) Ã¢â¬â Takagi, Y., Takahashi, J., Saiki, H., Morizane, A., Hayashi, T., Kishi, Y., Fukuda, H., Okamoto, Y., Koyanagi, M., Ideguchi, M., Hayshi, H., Imazoto, T., Kawasaka, H., Suemori, H., Omachi, S., Iida, H., Itoh, N., Nakatsuji, N., Sasai, Y., Hashimoto, N., 2005. Dopaminergic neurons generated from monkey embryonic stem cells function in a Parkinson primate model. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 115(1), pp.102-109 Figure 3 (13) Ã¢â¬â Bjorklund, L.M., Sanchez-Pernaute, R,. Chung, S., Anderson, T., Yin Ching Chen, I., McNaught, K.S.P, Brownell, A.L., Jenkins, B.G., Wahlestedt, C., Kim, K.S., Isacson, O., 2002. Embryonic stem cells develop into functional dopaminergic neurons after transplantation in a Parkinson rat model. PNAS, 99 (4), pp.2344-2349 Figure 4 (8) Ã¢â¬â Mendez, I., Sanchez-Pernaute, R., Cooper, O., Vinuela, A., Ferrari, D., Bjorklund, L., Dagher, A., Isacson, O., 2005. Cell type analysis of functional fetal dopamine cell suspension transplants in the striatum and substantia nigra of patients with ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. Brain, 128, pp. 1498-1510 How to cite Can embryonic stem cells be used in the treatment of ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease?, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
My Take on The Fault in Our Stars Essay The Fault in Our Stars is the fifth novel written by John Green. John Green has written six novels and is apparently working on his seventh one as we speak. For a few months the John Green books have been a bit of a trend, at least for teenage girls in Iceland. The Ã¢â¬Å¾book trendsÃ¢â¬Å" tend to start around Christmas and this book is amazing to have over the holidays. The trends have been Twilight, The Hunger Games, Divergent and probably many more but these are the once IÃ¢â¬Ëve noticed. All those books are fantasies, they could maybe happen, but itÃ¢â¬Ës highly unlikely. I think itÃ¢â¬Ës nice to finally read something that makes some sense in reality for a change. The fantasies give you a chance to think about this other world that might be out there but yet for the tough reality itÃ¢â¬Ës nice to read a reality novel. This one is heart-breaking and yet so heart-warming, mostly itÃ¢â¬Ës hard to believe that someone out there has to go through a similar situation, maybe far, far away but maybe in your neighbourhood. You never know and something in your heart wants nothing more then not to know about someone who has to go through that horror. The book is told by Hazel Grace, a cancer patient who has no chance of getting well. In the book she and her first good friend but then boyfriend, Augustus Waters or often just Gus talk very much about death. Not always in a bad way, sometimes a sad way but sometimes itÃ¢â¬Ës from a reassuring point of view. Gus, an ex-basketball player and an amputee, and Hazel meet in support group and for him, I believe in some ways, it was love at first sight. As they get to know each other Hazel starts to fall in love, but pushes it away because she believes so that she is a grenade and that her death will ruin everyone who cares about her. The plan is not to make anyone else love her but her parents. Her plan goes completely wrong because the love that Hazel and Gus have for each other is too strong. HazelÃ¢â¬Ës mother does n We will write a custom essay sample on My Take on The Fault in Our Stars specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on My Take on The Fault in Our Stars specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on My Take on The Fault in Our Stars specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Holocause Literature essays Many of the survivors of the Holocaust went to writing literature as a way of telling what it was really like. Survivors used this way because it is extremely difficult to explain what happened by talking, so they use literature. Out of all of the Holocaust authors, Elie Wiesel is quite possibly the most well known Holocaust author of all time. Elie Wiesel, being a survivor of the Holocaust, uses his literature to tell his stories about what he went through. Elie Wiesel has written many novels on the Holocaust. Throughout his works he has used many of the same themes. In the novels Night, Dawn, and A Beggar in Jerusalem the same themes or ideas are repeated many times. In the novel Night, the idea of loss of faith is used many times. Elie Wiesel used this theme because during the Holocaust, many of the victims lost faith in God. Confronting the Holocaust states, One of the contradictory ideas in Wiesels Night is: there is no God, I hate him. After Auschwitz Gods presence is most strongly felt through his absence.(57) The victims had every right to believe that God was absent at this time. Many times in Night the characters would just flat out say how they did not believe in God anymore. And in spite of myself, a prayer rose in my heart, to that God in whom I no longer believed. Wiesel used this example over and over in Night to emphasize how almost all Holocaust victims lost faith in their God. Behind me, I heard the same man asking: Where is God now? And I heard a voice within me answer him Where is He? He is- he is hanging here on this gallows. This shows how characters in the novel feel that their God has died right before them. Night had th e most loss of faith because the novel takes place right in the heart of the Holocaust, so it is easy to see why Wiesel used loss of faith in this novel. The idea of loss of faith also played a role in the novel Dawn. Dawn...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Use the STAR Method to answer any interview question ItÃ¢â¬â¢s interview day. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve worked on your handshake, your eye contact, your head-to-toe professional outfit. You know your resume backwards and forwards, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ve reviewed the job description so many times you can practically see it when you close your eyes. So, youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready. And then in the interview, you get a question you werenÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily expecting: Ã¢â¬Å"Tell me about a time when youÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Argh, the dreaded behavioral questions. Now what? First, donÃ¢â¬â¢t panic. You can answer any question an interviewer throws your way, without grinding the whole thing to a halt. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s as simple as being a STAR.WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the STAR MethodÃ andÃ howÃ doÃ youÃ useÃ it?STAR is a method you can use to frame an answer quickly and efficiently. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an acronym for:Situation: Where/when did this example take place?Task: What was your level of responsibility in this example?Action: What steps did you take?Result: What was the outcome, and what did you learn or achieve?LetÃ¢â¬â¢s break down some strategies for using the STAR method in your next and future interviews.Find the right exampleUnless something comes to mind right away, this can be the hardest part. But think of it this way: the question is likely to be a situation that is tied to something on your resume or a task in the job description, so this is something you can think about in advance, even if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what will be asked specifically. Ahead of the interview, come up with examples or anecdotes for every experience bullet point and skill on your resume. That way, when youÃ¢â¬â¢re asked, Ã¢â¬Å"Tell me about at time you showed leadership,Ã¢â¬ you will already have a list of relevant points ready to go.Relevance is the key- you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to start rambling about something that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really fit what the interviewer is asking. So the quick internal check should be, Ã¢â¬Å"I think this is the right story- does it answer whatÃ¢â¬â¢s being asked?Ã¢â¬ And if you need a bit of time to think things over, say so- itÃ¢â¬â¢s okay to ask for a minute to think things over. Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s a really great question; IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to think about it for a minute!Ã¢â¬ You donÃ¢â¬â¢t want your contemplation to go too long, but taking 30 seconds to gather your thoughts will lead to a better answer.Set the sceneThis doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be an elaborate, cinematic story. However, you should be able to give a few quick details to show the interviewer what the context is for your story.I was the lead on a project, and 80% of my team had called in sickÃ¢â¬ ¦We were on schedule and on budget, when the client changed his mind in the middle of the meetingÃ¢â¬ ¦I took a call from an angry customer, who was not interested in hearing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s side of the storyÃ¢â¬ ¦YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to make it conversational so that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t sound like you memorized a card. All you need are a few short sentences- no need to provide detailed backstory about everyone involved or a history of your employment. You want the details to be directly relevant to your story. And itÃ¢â¬â¢s okay to be humorous or light in your response, as long as you keep the tone professional.Talk about what you did to solve the problem or approach the issueOnce youÃ¢â¬â¢ve set the scene for the interviewer, talk about what you did to resolve the issue. Usually, when interviewers ask behavioral-style questions, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re just as interested in the how as the what. And again, this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to be a long-winded, detailed step-by-step. A few succinct bullet points about what you did in the situation will be just fine. If the interviewer has any follow-up questions, sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll ask.Talk up your achievements- or lessons learnedWhen youÃ¢â¬â¢re talking about the results, donÃ¢â¬â¢t be afraid to talk about what you achieved- especially if it puts you in a positive light. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to come off like a braggart, but you should own your accomplishments.The project came in under budget thanks to my fix, and we broke sales records that year.Because I caught the order before it was processed, I was able to stop 5,000 widgets from being shipped accidentally. That was a great feeling.And if you picked an example that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily have a happy ending (because hey, sometimes thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the only anecdote that fits), be sure to talk about what you did gain from the situation.Although it was difficult Ã while I worked to resolve the issue, it taught me that nothing is more important than providing a superior customer experience.It was definitely a learning experience, and having worked with such a demanding client, I know I can work with anyone to get the job done.Like with your other STAR points, a couple of sentences should be all you need to summarize and wrap up your story.Practice beforehandIf youÃ¢â¬â¢re not all that comfortable with storytelling, this is definitely a skill you can build before youÃ¢â¬â¢re in the interview hot seat. Just like with body language or your handshake, practice until it becomes second nature! Grab a trusted person who can ask you general behavioral questions, and apply the STAR method to your conversation. If you do this enough times in your everyday life, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be sitting in the interview thinking, Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, time for S. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the situation?Ã¢â¬ YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll already be searching through your mindÃ¢â¬â¢s archive for the relevant anecdote. Ã Ã If you prep for interviews with the STAR method, you can tackle any question an interviewer throws your way, even if it seems like it comes out of nowhere. Quick, to-the-point answers will impress your interviewer and demonstrate that you have one of the most important skills- thinking on you r feet.
Friday, February 14, 2020
HRD - Essay Example The leading causes of these medial errors are lack of expertise or ignorance, communication or lack of it, between the medical professionals working together. Poor communication and breakdown in the same is a great threat to the competent medical practice and it needs must be improved for the sake of enhancing the effectiveness of medical practitioners, ergo, the safety of the patients. This paper will discuss the problems that from poor communication and what can be done to improve the process of medical care and the staffÃ¢â¬â¢s efficiency in this respect. It will be based on three journals addressing communication and safety in surgery, emergency medicine and the need for technology to enhance medical communication. According to Robert Neil (2006) in the journal, Ã¢â¬Å"Costly issues of an uncommunicative OR (Operation room)Ã¢â¬ , there is no place where the issue of communication is more important or its neglect more potentially dangerous than the operation room. Miscommunication in the OR often leads in complications and such ultimately lead in the patients lengthened stay in the hospital, increases the risk of infection and may negatively affect the hospitals bottom line considerably. Neil (2006) justifies his claim by quoting Peter Plantes, a vice president of clinical performance for VHA, Texas, who states that the although the patients safety gets first priority in the safety consideration, overall, with fewer mistakes, the costs will be positively impacted in the long run. To foster communication in the OR Plantes admits is not always easy especially for the surgeons many of whom are set in their ways, However, it can be achieved in the need for creating a collaborative environment in the OR are made clear and demonstrated. This is because surgeons are professionals who take pride in their work thus want the best for their patients, if they communicate and are open to