Monday, August 24, 2020

Introduction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 13

Presentation - Essay Example cess just as to make unique commitment to writing, this paper examines what rules a growing cafés needs to meet so as to set its foot and extend in the profoundly testing and serious contemporary food industry. This paper utilizes the Porter’s Five-Forces model to inspect a restaurant’s serious condition. Taking McDonald’s as a contextual analysis, this paper examines the dangers and openings a growing café faces today and the focal points and hindrances related with its key moves. McDonald’s is one of the best inexpensive food chains ever. Having made such an amazing progress and development in a matter of substantially less than a century, McDonald’s has a ton to offer new and sprouting business people as far as crucial, key dynamic, and approaches to make progress. The paper finishes up with a lot of proposals for McDonald’s that can assist it with night improve the pace of its prosperity and the nature of its items and

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Pepsi vs coca in india case Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Pepsi versus coca in india case - Essay Example Coca-Cola reemerged India in the mid 1990s when the Indian government received the approach of advancement, privatization and globalization. At that point, PepsiCo had just procured 26 percent of the cola portion. Coca-Cola couldn't eat into the piece of the pie of existing players as the drink showcase was in the development stage. PepsiCo has been effectively fortifying its non-cola portfolio in India. The organization has expanded into the lemon and orange portion of carbonated beverages and has additionally propelled its image of juices. PepsiCo collects one-fourth of its income from the non-cola fragment and is all around ready to gain by the customers changing tastes and inclinations. One the other hand, Coca-Cola’s leader brands; Coke and Thums Up are cola drinks. PepsiCo has likewise propelled its Aquafina image of packaged mineral water in India. The organization has caught a huge piece of the overall industry in the filtered water advertise which is relied upon to develop consistently later on. The immense item cluster of PepsiCo likewise incorporates Gatorade, an entrenched worldwide games drink brand. The developing wellbeing awareness among Indian shoppers is probably going to help Gatorade increase further footing in the Indian market. The rise of sports and activities in the day by day routine of Indian customers looks good for PepsiCo. PepsiCo utilizes suitable publicizing and deals advancement strategies remembering the Indian culture. Sponsorship of cricket and football competitions and superstar supports has hit the correct harmony with PepsiCo’s target showcase in

Saturday, July 18, 2020

Essay sample how the beehive looks like

Essay sample how the beehive looks like Bees are wonderful and extraordinary creatures that are far more complicated and intelligent than it is usually believed. Due to their close relationships with people, bees have been relatively well-researched compared to other insects. These are more than 20,000 species of bees living in different parts of this planet (Winston, 2014). Some of them are tiny and reach only 2 mm while others are quite impressive â€" up to 4 cm long. Bees are famous for making honey â€" a delicious and wholesome substance they create from pollen (Corrick, 2010). These social insects live in colonies with an intricate structure and a clear division of responsibilities. Research shows that there are soldiers, queens, breadwinners, and even babysitters in their beehives, which vividly demonstrates the complexity of their world. In the present essay, I attempt to explore what it is like in a beehive, how natural and human-made behaves differ, and how bees interact within these settings. Inside a Natural Beehive It is important to understand that different species of bees have different beehives. Naturally, describing all of them will take much time, so we will focus on the most common Western honeybees’ hives. A natural beehive is typically constructed in some hollow cavity that protects its inhabitants from the elements (Winston, 2014). It can be a hollow tree trunk, a cavity in a cliff, or even a rooftop or an attic. To build their houses, bees use the wax they produce with the help of glands located on their abdomens. They chew this wax until it gets soft enough to bond small pieces of it into one large hive (Corrick, 2010). Interestingly, bees building the hive (they are called workers) manage to maintain the favorable atmosphere to control the texture of this wax. Now that you know what is a beehive made out of, I intend to explain how it looks like inside and what functions it serves. The beehive is the kind of a honeycomb with uniquely-shaped hexagonal cells. These small constructions with a perfect form are used by bees to store honey, pollen, and nectar, as well as house larvae (Hirschmann, 2004). Since a beehive may contain up to 50,000 bees, it is critically important for these creatures to optimize this space. At this point, one needs to highlight that bees are talented mathematicians and engineers. They discovered that hexagon is an ideal shape to use their scarce resources wisely. Because bees need much honey to produce wax, they try to use as little of this substance as possible, so triangles and squares would be too “expensive” to construct (MyBeeLine, 2017). Besides, the hexagonal shape allows optimizing the use of space, which is crucial for such crowded places as hives. Inside a Honey Beehive: Human-Made Hives Human-made beehives, although being similar to the natural ones, have several peculiarities. Therefore, I would like to explain what’s it like inside a beehive made by people. Since the ancient times, people have tried to domesticate these useful insects and build houses for them, which consisted of unbaked clay and straw. However, these structures were not orderly enough, so bees had to create their own honeycombs, which were then destroyed by people to extract honey (Hive and Honey Apiary, 2017). Fortunately, modern beekeepers have developed more efficient methods of beehive construction that allow bees to live in comfortable conditions. Interestingly, while bees need only time and efforts to build their extraordinary houses, contemporary beekeepers wishing to have bees at home should possess many skills, knowledge, and materials at hand. To construct a simple beehive, one would need thick sheets of plywood, table saw, chop saw, hammer, nails, wood glue, jigsaw, and many other things (Pauli, 2016). The main feature of these constructions is that they have movable frames that facilitate the process of honey extraction. Due to this characteristic, the comb is easily left intact during the honey bee hive removal, but some beekeepers sell honey comb because is believed to have many vitamins. In general, although the external structure of the handmade beehive differs from that of the natural one, the internal setting remains almost the same as bees themselves adjust it to their needs. Interesting Facts about Bees I would also like to discuss some interesting honey bee hive facts that will tell you more about these extraordinary insects. Building such complicated hives requires much energy, so bees literally work themselves to death constructing them; some of them live no longer than six weeks (Reilly, 2013). Furthermore, it is a well-known fact that bees get used to performing a certain job and if they need to change it for some reason, their brain chemistry changes as well to respond to new requirements. Interestingly, it is also believed that the clear division of responsibilities resulted in bees having their distinct personalities and character, which is one of the reasons why people get so fascinated by these creatures (Reilly, 2013). The last thing to consider is how do honeybees communicate about the location of food resources? Research indicates that bees use hormones and special movements to interact, which work together as a unique language that humans have not yet fully unraveled. To summarize, one can see that bees are amazing insects with a complex social structure, division of responsibilities, language, and outstanding engineering skills. They are dedicated to their work and can cooperate effectively to construct uniquely-shaped hives, both in the natural and home environment. However, some things are still not fully explored about these creatures. It is not clear how do honeybees communicate about the location of food resources and how they decide what jobs they should take. Therefore, a beehive remains a mystery for humans, which is to be explored in the future.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Essay On Social Work - 1637 Words

A social worker is someone who engages with people to address their life challenges and improve their wellbeing. They are reliable for defending the values and principles of the social work definition. The principles and values of social work are â€Å"respect for the inherent worth and dignity of human beings, doing no harm, respect for diversity and upholding human rights and social justice† (Global Definition of Social Work). Social work goes by the first, second, and third generation rights. These rights include free speech, freedom of harm, rights to an education, rights to healthcare, and rights to housing and protection (Global Definition of Social Work). Social workers are very passionate in what they do, and they make sure they carry†¦show more content†¦Some people think that being a social worker is easy, but that’s not true, they are constantly working even when not on the clock. These social workers are passionate about what they do and will do wha tever they can to make sure the children are safe. It’s very depressing working with some of the cases the social workers get, from the way families are living and the actions of the parents to the way the children are treated. Most cases social workers get are anonymous complaints, some of them will only give the child’s name and the neighborhood or general area. The social workers will then go to the school to try and get the information needed to locate the child. Although, most times when they ask for the information the school will not provide that for them without a signed form from the parents (Social Workers Battle Heavy Caseloads, Workplace Dangers). The social worker will evaluate the home to see if it is safe for the children to live there or if they need to be removed from that home. They will arrange foster homes or adoptive homes for the children. Social workers will also do home visits and evaluations of the foster or adoptive homes. At the home visits t he social worker will talk to the foster/adoptive parents to make sure all is going well. If the children are old enough to talk and understand what is going on, the social worker will talk to them as well to see how they like it and make sure theyShow MoreRelated Social Work Essay1632 Words   |  7 PagesThis essay will discuss social divisions; social exclusion and social inclusion, of which there are many definitions and interpretations. Social divisions and Social exclusion has been around for many years. Social exclusion was first noticed in France in 1970s in relation to people who fell outside the range of the social insurance system, such as disabled people, lone parents and the young unemployed (Townsend and Kennedy, 2004). Before 1997 Social exclusion was referred to as ‘poverty’, whichRead MoreEssay On Social Work1897 Words   |  8 PagesSocial work in modern day society is faced with an array of challenges making the profession a difficult and testing o ne at times. This essay will hold a focus upon social work practice in the Adult Services field. This field includes, but is not limited to, working with individuals with disabilities (physical or mental) those with alcohol or substance addictions, people experiencing psychological distress, those facing financial distress, victims of abuse, those convicted of crimes and people withRead MoreEssay On Social Work733 Words   |  3 PagesSocial work is all about understanding and making a difference in people’s lives. I am very passionate about actively helping people overcome their problems and have the best quality of life they possible can. I understand that social work is a challenging occupation; however, I believe I have the skills and determination to pursue a career in social work. My main curricular interests are in social subjects such as geography and history. I enjoy finding out about the world and the people. ThisRead MoreEssay On Social Work1415 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Social work is the professional activity of helping individuals, groups, or communities enhance or restore their capacity for social functioning and creating societal conditions favorable to this goal (Kirst-Ashman 2017)†. â€Å"Social welfare is a national system of programs, benefits, and services that help people meet the social, economic, educational, and health needs fundamental to the maintenance of society (Kirst-Ashman 2017)†. Many people agree that social welfare and social work is very importantRead MoreEssay On Social Work1512 Words   |  7 PagesThe key life experiences that have led me to choose social work as my major was because I enjoy making a difference in the lives of others. I had many years of experience working in Behavioral Health and had the privilege working with children, adolescents, as well as adults with physical and mental disabilities. I believe I have sharp knowledge of behavioral and development issues. I am a mental health specialist and would like to be a social worker. I also want to be more involved with patientRead MoreSocial Work Essay1293 Words   |  6 Pagesbecome a Social Worker. My whole life I have been described as a social butterfly. I take every opportunity I can get to be social, which is why no one in my family had any worries about my ability to make friends when I moved away from home to California State University Monterey Bay. I take advantage of every workshop, every speaker, and every event that my school offers in order to gain more insight on the Social Work profession. One of the reasons why I chose my concentration to be Social Work, isRead MoreEssay On Social Work1561 Words   |  7 PagesSocial work is my seco nd decision. I had been going to Henry Ford Community College for four years and was not sure what University I wanted to attend. I always knew the profession, I chose would primarily be focused on helping others. I thought about going to culinary arts school. However, I kept hearing the Lord lead me to social work, I was sure that helping young people has always been my calling. Social specialists don t just enable individuals to utilize their assets and insight to individualsRead MoreSocial Work Essay1360 Words   |  6 PagesThe social work profession as I understand essentially concerns the desire to help those in need of resources, services, and counsel. I consider the social work profession to be a passion-driven and providing career. I understand social work to be a profession providing helpful resources to those who seek assistance from others in various aspects, along with those who do not but can benefit. Being a social work professional means to me providing services onl y obtainable by professionals to thoseRead MoreEssay On Social Work1365 Words   |  6 Pagescontinue to educate myself so I can better serve those around me. I offer assurance to let others know they are not alone and that I will help them. I feel all these person values are very consistent with social work. The core values of social work are service which I do daily in my volunteerism. Social Justice which I also fight for daily as an advocate for special education students in my towns schools, when confronted with ignorance. I feel I combine dignity and worth of the person with the importanceRead More Social Work Essay1900 Words   |  8 PagesSocial Work Social work is located within some of the most complex problems and perplexing areas of human experience, and for this reason, social work is, and has to be, a highly skilled activity.† (Trevithick, 2000,p.1) Explain the meaning of this statement, and consider whether it is an adequate definition of the nature of social work. The aim of this assignment is to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

James Baldwins Sonnys Blues - 1418 Words

A common idea of James Baldwin is that he happens to write more significant essays rather than fictions or dramatic pieces. However, his most common theme of choice, ones discovery of self-identity- is elaborately broadcasted and exhibited greatly in his short story â€Å"Sonny’s Blues†. First circulated in the late fifties and then again in the mid-sixties, Sonnys Blues explains Baldwin’s reasons for his famous arguments in the arena of Black freedom, while also providing a visual bonding of his work across multiple genres, with the ways and understandings of the urban Black community. The essential and gradual progression of â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† symbolizes the measured adaptation of the narrators perception of the importance of his younger brothers approach at life. The progression directs Baldwin’s audience to a thoughtful involvement with the individual by supplying an understanding of the human intentions of the young people whose situations, under normal circumstances, only receive recognition by others when being stated to others merely for their involvement in contributing to the severe statistics of dropout rates, usage of drugs, and unemployment status. The overall purpose of the story and its correlation with the theme of Baldwin’s work as a whole, is hidden behind his deliberate metaphorical use of the Blues. The distinctive feature of the Blues is its arrangement of individual and public significance in a harmonious affair with the past. The Blues-singerShow MoreRelatedJames BaldwinS Sonnys Blues713 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿Harrisons Blues There can be little doubt that the characters who are the most similar in James Baldwins short story Sonnys Blues, and in Kurt Vonnegut Jr.s short story Harrison Bergeron, are the title characters of each respective work. They both embody conceptions of youth within each story Sonny as the younger brother of the nameless narrator in Baldwins tale, and Bergeron as the son of the George and Hazel Bergeron. In their own way, each is antisocial and engage in practices thatRead MoreJames Baldwins Sonnys Blues859 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿An Analysis of James Baldwin s Sonny s Blues In James Baldwin s short story Sonny s Blues a young man questions his brotherly obligations after finding that his younger brother has been arrested for using drugs. In the attempt to rectify his younger brother s behavior and life, the young man faces his own feelings for his brother and comes to terms with the life his brother Sonny lives. The developments of certain elements-plot, character, point of view, setting, symbolism-in the storyRead MoreThe Concept of Family in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues1017 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Family is one of the primary concepts in James Baldwins short story Sonnys Blues, considering that the connection between the narrator and his brother, Sonny, echoes throughout the text. The writer intended the audience to feel the relationship between the two characters and he initially induced confusion in individuals by hiding the fact that the narrator is Sonnys brother. Most of the story deals with the narrator acknowledging the roles that each of h is family members had in shaping hisRead More The Inevitability of Suffering in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues876 Words   |  4 PagesThe Inevitability of Suffering in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues Everyone likes to feel safe. We try to protect ourselves and those we love, to make them feel safe as well. The idea conveyed about safety in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues is that there is no such thing. The narrator of this story had thought that his brother Sonny was safe. Or at least, that was what he had made himself believe. I told myself that Sonny was wild, but he wasnt crazy. And hed always been a good boy, heRead More James Baldwins Story Sonnys Blues Essay1261 Words   |  6 PagesJames Baldwins Story Sonnys Blues James Baldwin?s story ?Sonny?s Blues? is a deep and reflexive composition. Baldwin uses the life of two brothers to establish parallelism of personal struggle with society, and at the same time implies a psychological process of one brother leaving his socially ingrained prejudices to understand and accept the others flaws. The story is narrated by Sonny?s older brother whom remained unnamed the entire story. Sonnys brother is a pragmatic person, a teacherRead MoreEssay about James Baldwin’s Sonny’s Blues1028 Words   |  5 Pages In the world of Harlem, New York the cruelties of the world become incandescently prominent. James Baldwin’s â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† addresses the foreboding power of pain in a world where someone’s coping skills dictate the course of their life. The story depicts a person’s options to ignore pain, create a reason for pain, or accept pain and live within it. Baldwin explains the theme of pervasive pain and parent’s attempt to shield children from it through the characters. Their reaction to pain constructsRead More Symbolism in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues Essay1242 Words   |  5 PagesSymbolism in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues Missing Works Cited Several passages found throughout Sonnys Blues indicate that as a whole, the neighborhood of Harlem is in the turmoil of a battle between good and evil. The narrator describes Sonnys close encounters with the evil manifested in drugs and crime, as well as his assertive attempts at distancing himself from the darker side. The streets and communities of Harlem are described as being a harsh environment which claims the lives ofRead MoreEssay on Literary Analysis of James Baldwin’s Sonny’s Blues2323 Words   |  10 Pagesauthors create stories with a singular point of view, while others introduce more complex plots and storylines. When it comes to author James Baldwin’s short story Sonny’s Blues, there is much depth given to the storyline and the characters. Sonny’s Blues has been analyzed by many different people throughout time because the story has many elements. From Baldwin’s skillful use of metaphors and similes to his incorporation of re ligious references, this story is insightfully and complexly written. ARead More The Presence of Darkness in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues Essays809 Words   |  4 PagesThe Presence of Darkness in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues In the story Sonnys Blues the author, James Baldwin, uses the image of darkness quite frequently. He uses it first when the older brother (main character) talks about his younger brother Sonny. He says that when Sonny was younger his face was bright and open. He said that he didnt want to believe that he would ever see his brother going down, coming to nothing, all that light in his face gone out. Meaning he had gone from good (cleanRead More The Power of Music in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues Essay1544 Words   |  7 PagesThe Power of Music in James Baldwins Sonnys Blues At first glance, Sonnys Blues seems ambiguous about the relationship between music and drugs. After all, the worlds of jazz and drug addiction are historically intertwined; it could be possible that Sonnys passion for jazz is merely an excuse for his lifestyle and addiction, as the narrator believes for a time. Or perhaps the world that Sonny has entered by becoming involved in jazz is the danger- if he had not encountered jazz

Can embryonic stem cells be used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease Free Essays

Abstract: Current treatments of Parkinson’s disease (PD) remain symptomatic, for example Levadopa, and results in a number of negative side effects after a foreseen period of time. However, investigations into using human embryonic stem (ES) cells to generate dopaminergic neurons hold huge potential for future treatments. Results show several patients gain an increased percentage of dopaminergic neural mass in the substantia nigra following transplantations of neural cell grafts into the striatum. We will write a custom essay sample on Can embryonic stem cells be used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease? or any similar topic only for you Order Now This suggests that grafts can work, although other studies show some patients fail to show improvements. There is also the risk of the formation of teratomas and teratocarcinomas in post-operative subjects, due to the self-renewal characteristics of the stem cells. Despite a number of studies proving that using human embryonic stem cells could be a reliable method of treatment, there are still a number of issues unresolved. Since the majority of experiments have taken place on primates, it is unreliable to assume that the same results would occur in human trials. There are also a number of ethical issues such as destroying the ‘potential human life’ of an embryo which, in several cases, is limiting the research and progression of new methods of treatment. Introduction Parkinson’s disease is a progressive degenerative disease of the substantia nigra, resulting in the depletion of dopamine in the striatum and the formation of protein bundles known as lewy bodies (1); such depletion of dopamine results in motor symptoms of which patients with PD present with, including resting tremor (2, 3). At present, the most common form of treatment for PD is Levadopa; however, it is only given once symptomatic and is thought that its effectiveness decreases over time (1). Investigations into the treatment of PD involving the use of embryonic stem cells to generate dopaminergic neurons for transplantation into the brain is currently in progress and this review is going to look at the prospects and issues that the use of human embryonic stem cells may bring about. (4). What are human embryonic stem cells? Human ES cells are unspecialised and can differentiate into a range of cells via cell division, in this case the most important being dopaminergic neurons (5). Human ES cells are generated from the pre-implantation stage of an embryo, a blastocyst, and can multiply rapidly, generating large numbers of cells (5, 6). This suggests there could be enough to provide sufficient amounts of DA neurons for clinical procedures. ES cells are taken from the eggs that have been fertilised in vitro, provided by consented donors (7, 8). How are human embryonic stem cells being used to generate dopaminergic neurons? ES cells are being used to produce tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons by culturing, expansion and differentiation (fig 1). ES cell colonies are selected individually and grown in agar plates allowing for embryoid bodies to develop. Embryoid bodies are then further cultured in a medium containing Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2) for seven days. A number of cell masses in rosette formations (figure 2b), resembling neural tube structures, were observed within the embryoid bodies (6). Figure 1: Generating Dopaminergic neurons (12). Neural precursors showed expression of ‘nestin and musashi’, markers for neural progenitor cells (4): they act as a form of labelling identifying specific cells (9): Without FGF-2, no rosettes of orderly formation grew (6). When spherical neural masses formed after 14 days (figure 2a), it was noted that they could develop and multiply for over 120 days, providing evidence that there would be vast numbers of cells available for treatment (4).14 days is a short period of time tells us how efficient this method of neuron generation is. Figure 2: A – time in culture. B- ES cell colonies (10). One study (10) found that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells generated by neural masses was very small (5.4% +/- 1.8%) and to increase these figures, looked at the effects of growth factors and how they altered differentiation in culture. When FGF2 and FGF20 were present, percentages of TH+ cells increased by 18.6%; however, neither growth factors alone had such an effect. Once cultured in a differentiation medium, neural masses showed physiological characteristics of neurons providing evidence that differentiation was in progress. (4). What evidence is there to suggest that human embryonic stem cells may be used as an alternative treatment for Parkinson’s disease? Several studies (4, 5, 11) quote that human ES cells are able to successfully produce dopaminergic neurons and decrease the symptoms of PD when grafted into the brain. One study (10) experimented on a primate model with an induced form of PD and investigated as to whether the isolated TH+ neurons were able to function as dopaminergic neurons. The neurospheres grown from ES cells were grafted into the putamen of monkeys, only of which started to show signs of PD and whose conditions had deteriorated beyond a period of 12 weeks. After transplantation, the behaviour of the primates was observed and analysed using MRI scanning. 10 weeks following, neurological scores of the primates increased significantly in comparison to the control models. Having a control enables a clearer analysis to take place, and distinguish definite improvements in the primates’ behaviours. A similar investigation (11) performed bilateral implants on 61 patients into the putamen. When looking at fluorodopa PET scans 12 months post-surgery, 85% of patients presented with neural mass growth and showed physiological improvements. However, one study (9) suggests that the outcome for each individual is not certain to gain the same result, because processes such as apoptosis are unable to be controlled, resulting in cell death within days after transplantation: this presents in scans as a lack of fluorodopa uptake, suggesting a range of cell survival. It is thought that if treated with neurotrophic factors before surgery, it could improve cell survival (11). Comparing the two studies (10, 11), both results showed promising improvements, emphasising that although one study (10) was on primates, and the second (11) involved humans, both experiments gained a similar positive result. However, this point could be argued as the primate was induced with PD rather than developing the progressive disease naturally. Analysis of more than one trial (11, 12) has indicated that the response to transplantation could show a positive correlation alongside the patients’ ability to successfully react to L-dopa prior to the operation, as well as the patients’ stage of disease. One study (12) presented that if a patient scored lower that 50 on the unified Parkinson’s scale before surgery, then they were more likely to gain a positive result from the transplant. Some may say that for the treatment to be appreciated, it shouldn’t matter what stage the patient is at when receiving the transplant, and that it should work at all stages of the disease, although as proven with diseases such as cancer, this is not always possible. As well as increased F-dopa uptake, a studies on animals (13, 14) observed rotational behaviour in response to amphetamine before and after surgery. Results showed a decrease in the scores of the animals given the graft, whilst sham controls showed no improvement (figure 3). One study (13) was repeated on 4 occasions across a 9 week period and continued to show gradual reduction. This provides evidence that the graft was beginning to improve dopaminergic neuron function, as motor functions were showing significant improvements (14). Figure 3: Rotational behaviour scores (13) Another study (12) says that neurons generated from the cells of early aborted embryos are able to survive when transplanted into the striatum and recover the loss of function by 10-40%, by restoring dopamine production in the grafted area (15). However, such results may be unreliable in respect to human transplants as these studies were performed on rats and monkeys, of which the disease was induced by creating selective lesions. Such lesions are, therefore, in a different condition compared to natural lesions found in the brain of a patient with progressive PD (9). Transplants are thought to have decreased the occurrence of dyskinesias, a side-effect of levodopa; however, this has mostly only been proven in rats and monkeys. In addition, a number of patients have been able to stop using levodopa completely, although this is not a regular occurrence. On the contrary, a number of subjects have been noted having developed off dyskinesias: 7-15% of grafted patients (5). It is thought that this is down to the fact that the neurons are unable to function properly; this could be due to the overproduction of dopamine in the striatum (12). If there are consequences after transplantation, of the same severity as previous to the transplant, is it worth performing the operation? How are the generated neurons transplanted into the patientWhat are the issues with this? Grafts are injected into the brain whilst under anesthesia (16) and, as with all surgery, poses risks such as haemorrhage and infection (15). To minimise this, the number of needle passes is kept to a minimum. This was demonstrated in more than one case (9, 11, 15) where the needles were passed through the front of the head, through to the putamen bilaterally using a total of 4 needles (figure 4). In one study (16), 8 needle passes were used, however, this had no detriment to the outcome of the transplants, both achieving regeneration. ES cells themselves also pose risks. With characteristics such as pluripotency and self-renewal, stem cells have the potential to form teritomas and teratocarcinomas which, at present, is one of the greatest risks; without knowing that they won’t form, transplatation of human ES cells will cease to be promising (17). Figure 4: MRI and PET scans showing F-DOPA uptake and needle passes (8). In order for this method to be successful, such characteristics of the cells need to be able to be controlled, and by doing so, will reduce the likelihood of teramtomas forming. Nonetheless, human ES cells maintain a normal karyotype and, therefore, these growths are not thought to be of the malignant variety (5). Despite this, there is evidence to suggest that teratomas formed from the transplantation of early or unspecified neurons into the brain, can lead to incomplete motor benefit in models of PD (18). In the majority of studies, patients were given immunosuppressive therapy before surgery to prevent rejection. The drug Cyclosporin was given, however, the course of the treatment varied, fluctuating between 2 days to 2 weeks (8, 11, 19). In such cases, when the immunosuppressive medication was withdrawn post-operatively, there was no evidence of reduction in f-dopa uptake, suggesting that the graft was functioning properly (19). One study (9) claims that immunosuppressive treatment is not needed when the graft is kept within the same species. What ethical issues are there with using human embryonic stem cells? One question that will continue to be brought up in regards to embryos is ‘at what stage is the embryo a human life?’ One book (20)suggests that for research on an embryo to commence, informed consent must be given as many people believe that the blastocyst has the potential to be a human being. However, because an embryo is incompetent of doing so, then the research cannot take place and, if it did, then it is thought that it would be restricting the embryos right or potential to life. Despite this, the use of stem cells derived from blastocysts continues to take place (20).Opinions vary and many of those who object to the use of embryos are subject to religious views: it is not necessarily a personal opinion but a matter of principle as to who has the right to determine life or death. One way of presenting the idea of using ES cells to those ethically opposed is by carrying out a benefit to risk ratio, weighing up the pros and cons of the situation. One argument (21) emphasises potential relief of symptoms, and the withdrawal of pharmacological treatment. It could not only benefit the subject, but also influence those affected indirectly by PD. Opposing to this are the risks of tumour formations and infection both during and after surgery, along with rejection by the immune system. With ethical issues in mind, Parthenogenesis has provided an alternative way of deriving pluripotent stem cells without damaging embryos, preventing the destruction of potential life. Asexual reproduction of sex cells could be the route to generating vast amounts of pluripotent stem cells appropriate for transplantation, without the ethical issues that we face today (18). Discussion: Looking at the evidence provided, it is viable to conclude that the use of human ES cells to produce dopaminergic neurons for transplantation into the brain has potential for future treatments. However, at present, studies are unable to provide valid evidence that this alternative treatment is guaranteed to work on a world-wide basis, as there is yet to be a steady correlation of improved brain function post-operative. Alongside this, there will continue to be a number of ethical arguments against the idea with respect to using human embryos as the source of stem cells, although, as discussed previously, other methods of generating stem cells such as parthenogenesis could be the answer to this. A greater knowledge of how the cells are differentiating and having the ability to gain control of this would provide a much better prospect for the future pioneers of embryonic dopamine cell transplantation. With greater research and more promising results, the use of human ES cells to genera te dopaminergic neurons could provide an effective method of treatment in the near future, which could lead to the successful restoration of normal brain function. References: (1) Schapira, A.V.H., 1991. Parkinson’s Disease. Science, Medicine and the future, 318, pp.311-314 (2) Chinta, S.J., Andersen, J.K., 2005. Cell focus in Dopaminergic Neurons. The International Journal of Biochemistry Cell Biology, 37, pp. 942–946 (3) Zigmond, M.J., Burke, R.E., Pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. Neurpharmacology: the fifth generation of progress, 123, pp.1782 (4) Soo Cho, M., Lee, Y.E., Kim, J.Y., Chung, S., Cho, Y.H., Kim, D.S., Kang, S.M., Lee, H., Kim, M.H., Kim, J.H., Leem, J.W., Oh, S.K., Choi, Y.M., Hwang, D.Y., Chang, J.W., Kim, D.W., 2008. High Efficient and large-scale generation of functional dopamine neurons from human embryonic stem cells. PNAS, 105, pp3392-3397 (5) Wainwright, S.P., 2005. Can stem cells cure Parkinson’s disaeaseEmbryonic steps toward a regenerative brain medicine. British Journal of Neuroscience nursing, 1(3), pp.110-115 (6) Zhang, S.C., Wernig, M., Duncan, I.D., Brustle, O., Thomson, J.A., 2001. In vitro differentiation of transplantable neural precursors from human embryonic stem cells. Nature, 19 (8) Mendez, I., Sanchez-Pernaute, R., Cooper, O., Vinuela, A., Ferrari, D., Bjorklund, L., Dagher, A., Isacson, O., 2005. Cell type analysis of functional fetal dopamine cell suspension transplants in the striatum and substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Brain, 128, pp. 1498-1510 (9) Bjorklund, A,. Dunnett, S.B., Brundin, P., Stoessl, A.J., Freed, C.R., Breeze, R.E., Levivier, M., Peschanski, M., Studer, L., Barker, R., 2003. Neural transplantation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The Lancet Neurology, 2, pp.437-445 (10) Takagi, Y., Takahashi, J., Saiki, H., Morizane, A., Hayashi, T., Kishi, Y., Fukuda, H., Okamoto, Y., Koyanagi, M., Ideguchi, M., Hayshi, H., Imazoto, T., Kawasaka, H., Suemori, H., Omachi, S., Iida, H., Itoh, N., Nakatsuji, N., Sasai, Y., Hashimoto, N., 2005. Dopaminergic neurons generated from monkey embryonic stem cells function in a Parkinson primate model. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 115(1), pp.102-109 (11) Freed, C.R., Leehey, M.A., Zawada, M., Bjugstad, K., Thompson, L., Breeze, R.E., 2003. Do patients with Parkinson’s disease benefit from embryonic dopamine cell transplantationJ Neurol, 3, pp.44-46 (12) Isacson, O., 2003. The production and use of cells as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative disease. The Lancet Neurology, 2, pp.417-424 (13) Bjorklund, L.M., Sanchez-Pernaute, R,. Chung, S., Anderson, T., Yin Ching Chen, I., McNaught, K.S.P, Brownell, A.L., Jenkins, B.G., Wahlestedt, C., Kim, K.S., Isacson, O., 2002. Embryonic stem cells develop into functional dopaminergic neurons after transplantation in a Parkinson rat model. PNAS, 99 (4), pp.2344-2349 (14) Kim, J.H., Auerbach, J.M., Rodriguez-Gomez, J.A., Velasco, I., Gavin, D., Lumelsky, N., Lee, S.H., Nguyen, J., Sanchez-Pernaute, R., Bankiewicz, K., McKay, R., 2002. Dopamine neurons derived from embryonic stem cells function in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Nature, 418, pp.50-56 (15) Freed, C.R., Greene, P.E., Breeze, R.E, Tsai, W.Y., DuMouchel, W., Kao, R., Dillon, S., Winfield, H., Culver, S., Trojanowski, J.Q., Eidelberg, D., Fahn, S., 2001. Transplantation of Embryonic dopamine neurons for severe Parkinson’s disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 344 (10), pp.710-719 (16) Olanow, C.W., Goetz, C.G., Kordower, J.H., Stoessl, A.J., Sossi, V., Brin, M.F., Shannon, K.M., Nauert, M., Perl, D.P., Godbold, J., Freeman, T.B., 2003. Double-blind controlled trial of bilateral fetal nigral transplantation in Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol, 54, pp.403-414 (17) Wu, D.C., Boyd, A.S., Wood, K.J., 2007. Embryonic stem cell transplantation: potential applicability in cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. Frontiers in Bioscience, 12, pp.4525-4535 (18) Sanchez-Pernaute, R., Lee, H., Patterson, M., Reske-Nielsen, C., Toshizaki, T., Sonntag, K.C., Studer, L., Isacson, O.,2008. Parthenogenetic dopamine neurons from primate embryonic stem cells restore function in experimental Parkinson’s disease. Brain, 131, pp.2127-2139 (19) Piccini, P., Pavese, N., Hagell, P., Remier, J., Bjorklund, A., Oertel, W.H., Quinn, N.P., Brooks, D.J., Lindvall, O., 2005. Factors affecting the clinical outcome after neural transplantation in Parkinson’s disease. Brain, 128, pp.2977-2986 (20) Cusine, D.J., 1991. Experimentation: some legal aspects. Experiments on Embryos, (editors Anthony, D. Harris, J) pp.120. Routledge: London (21) Master, Z., McLeod, M., Mendez, I,. 2007. Benefits, risks and ethical considerations in translation of stem cell research to clinical applications in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Medical Ethics, 33, pp.169-173 Web References: (7) National Institute of Health. Stem Cell Basics. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9th March 2011]. Figure References: Title page: Available at: [Accessed 21st March 2011] Figure 1 (12) – Isacson, O., 2003. The production and use of cells as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative disease. The Lancet Neurology, 2, pp.417-424 Figure 2 (10) – Takagi, Y., Takahashi, J., Saiki, H., Morizane, A., Hayashi, T., Kishi, Y., Fukuda, H., Okamoto, Y., Koyanagi, M., Ideguchi, M., Hayshi, H., Imazoto, T., Kawasaka, H., Suemori, H., Omachi, S., Iida, H., Itoh, N., Nakatsuji, N., Sasai, Y., Hashimoto, N., 2005. Dopaminergic neurons generated from monkey embryonic stem cells function in a Parkinson primate model. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 115(1), pp.102-109 Figure 3 (13) – Bjorklund, L.M., Sanchez-Pernaute, R,. Chung, S., Anderson, T., Yin Ching Chen, I., McNaught, K.S.P, Brownell, A.L., Jenkins, B.G., Wahlestedt, C., Kim, K.S., Isacson, O., 2002. Embryonic stem cells develop into functional dopaminergic neurons after transplantation in a Parkinson rat model. PNAS, 99 (4), pp.2344-2349 Figure 4 (8) – Mendez, I., Sanchez-Pernaute, R., Cooper, O., Vinuela, A., Ferrari, D., Bjorklund, L., Dagher, A., Isacson, O., 2005. Cell type analysis of functional fetal dopamine cell suspension transplants in the striatum and substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Brain, 128, pp. 1498-1510 How to cite Can embryonic stem cells be used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease?, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

My Take on The Fault in Our Stars Essay Example

My Take on The Fault in Our Stars Essay The Fault in Our Stars is the fifth novel written by John Green. John Green has written six novels and is apparently working on his seventh one as we speak. For a few months the John Green books have been a bit of a trend, at least for teenage girls in Iceland. The „book trendsâ€Å" tend to start around Christmas and this book is amazing to have over the holidays. The trends have been Twilight, The Hunger Games, Divergent and probably many more but these are the once I‘ve noticed. All those books are fantasies, they could maybe happen, but it‘s highly unlikely. I think it‘s nice to finally read something that makes some sense in reality for a change. The fantasies give you a chance to think about this other world that might be out there but yet for the tough reality it‘s nice to read a reality novel. This one is heart-breaking and yet so heart-warming, mostly it‘s hard to believe that someone out there has to go through a similar situation, maybe far, far away but maybe in your neighbourhood. You never know and something in your heart wants nothing more then not to know about someone who has to go through that horror. The book is told by Hazel Grace, a cancer patient who has no chance of getting well. In the book she and her first good friend but then boyfriend, Augustus Waters or often just Gus talk very much about death. Not always in a bad way, sometimes a sad way but sometimes it‘s from a reassuring point of view. Gus, an ex-basketball player and an amputee, and Hazel meet in support group and for him, I believe in some ways, it was love at first sight. As they get to know each other Hazel starts to fall in love, but pushes it away because she believes so that she is a grenade and that her death will ruin everyone who cares about her. The plan is not to make anyone else love her but her parents. Her plan goes completely wrong because the love that Hazel and Gus have for each other is too strong. Hazel‘s mother does n We will write a custom essay sample on My Take on The Fault in Our Stars specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on My Take on The Fault in Our Stars specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on My Take on The Fault in Our Stars specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer